The article divides the fire retardant that do not have bittern for organic fire retardant and inorganic fire retardant, integration analysis the flame retardation of these two kinds of fire retardant that do not have bittern, summed up in last few years nitrogen of organic phosphor department, nitrogen department, phosphor cooperates with the inorganic fire retardant such as the organic fire retardant such as fire retardant and aluminous department, magnesian department, boracic department the application in epoxy resin and research progress. Epoxy resin is very strong to sticky exert oneself of the metal, have very strong be able to bear or endure stability of chemical caustic, electric insulating properties and good mechanical performance, high fever, and production cost is inferior, can apply extensively at integrated circuit, printed circuit board, insulation is enclosed, the electron such as electric glue sticky agent is electric domain of material and chemical coating, building. But a kind when regard polymer as material, have inferior limiting oxygen index without the epoxy resin of modified (LOI) value, belong to combustible material, restricted the application of epoxy resin greatly, need to use the field of epoxy resin below high temperature environment especially. Be in without the index of epoxy resin oxygen of modified 23% the left and right sides, can burn in air, can release a large number of quantity of heat, soot and harmful gas at the same time, accompany have high temperature frit drop other people is drippy, brought tremendous hidden trouble to human life and belongings. Traditional epoxy resin is passed normally add phosphoric acid 3 (chloric second base) ester, phosphoric acid 3 (2, 2 bromine of 3- propyl) the bittern such as A of ester, 4 bromic butane, 4 bromic double phenol fastens epoxy resin of fire retardant modified in order to raise its flame retardation. Although bittern department fire retardant has add a quantity to wait for an advantage less, but the smoke with more generation of the meeting when its burn and caustic gas, and 2 evil flower wait for the gas that cause cancer, because this is in very multilateral home by taboo. Be based on an environment 945 ” of the concept of friendly, low poison and “ plan to fall energy-saving those who decrease a platoon carry out, use epoxy resin of modified of the fire retardant that do not have bittern to become heat of a research gradually. The compound that the element such as P, N, As, Sb, Zn, Sn, Al, Mg, B contains below the circumstance normally often can be used as preparation not to have bittern fire retardant, what contain an element as a result of place is different, of fire retardant flame retardant the mechanism also has bigger difference. Accordingly, what what article basis fire retardant contains an element is different, cardinal principle of the fire retardant that do not have bittern cent is organic fire retardant and inorganic fire retardant. Because in recent years the research and development of major fire retardant is,cooperate with kind of fire retardant, the article basically develops the remarkable element cardinal principle of flame retardation to undertake classified to fire retardant according to its, analyse its the flame retardation in epoxy resin, made to development trend of future forecast.

1 organic fire retardant applies mediumly in epoxy resin

1.1 organic phosphor fasten fire retardant

Phosphor fastens fire retardant to have the characteristic such as tall anti-flammability, low poison, low smoke, because this phosphor element makes preparation,do not have one of important elements of bittern fire retardant. Normally the circumstance falls, phosphor is fire retardant is flame retardant the mechanism is agglomeration flame retardant, the fire retardant that contain phosphor forms phosphoric acid and much phosphoric acid in agglomeration photograph surface layer. On one hand the formation of layer of dehydration stimulative carbon will reduce heat to conduct; to be able to isolate on the other hand oxygen prevents blaze to continue to spread. In recent years 9, 2 hydrogen of 10- - 9- oxygen is miscellaneous - 10- phosphor miscellaneous humble - 10- oxide (DOPO, 1(a)) seeing a picture often is used as phosphor to fasten fire retardant, be applied extensively.

China unsaturated polyester resin (UPR)

The structure of graph 1 DOPO and DPO pursues

To promote DOPO further kind the efficiency of fire retardant, use DOPO normally lively P—H key and have Shuang Jian, mellow, phenol to wait base round compound reaction. DOPO also can react with lilac phenol, get new-style live thing base fire retardant DOPO-GE, can make the thermal stability of epoxy resin rises apparently, raise the anti-flammability of epoxy resin effectively. The Bi-DOPO compound that has double hydroxyl structure also already preparation comes out, when phosphorous content is inferior, composite material can achieve EP V-0 grade, LOI value is achieved 35.2% . Besides DOPO and its ramification, fire retardant of another kind of organic phosphor phosphine of 2 phenyl oxidation (DPO, those who see graph 1(b)) is flame retardant efficiency is taller also.

The preparation such as WANG flame retardant epoxy resin EP/DPO, experimental test makes clear as a result, EP/DPO is one kind has the high-powered colophony of temperature of transition of good thermal stability, tall vitrification and low bibulous rate. The effect in epoxy resin modified makes clear ramification of course contrast DOPO and DPO ramification, the composite material flame retardation of DPO ramification modified is stronger than DOPO ramification, and thermal stability is tall. Because this DPO is opposite,synthesize the organic phosphor that does not have bittern to fasten fire retardant to have better research prospect at DOPO as the body intermediate.

Phosphor fastens fire retardant to be able to raise the anti-flammability of epoxy resin effectively, the incomplete carbon that can improve data at the same time is measured, the smoke when reducing material to burn releases a quantity, it is one of important fire retardant that do not have bittern. Integrated contrast the LOI value that a few kinds of phosphor are fire retardant and limiting oxygen index, see a table 1.

China unsaturated polyester resin (UPR)

Note: *LOI value, limiting oxygen index measures;**UL-94 order and degree, grade of material fire prevention, similarly hereinafter. 1.2 nitrogen fasten fire retardant nitrogen to fasten fire retardant to have double cyanogen amine, couplet normally salt of 2 Niao, guanidine, 3 get together cyanogen amine and its salt, its are flame retardant the mechanism is gas phase flame retardant. Produce nitric gas when the meeting when nitrogen fastens fire retardant to burn, for example gas of nitrogen, ammonia, its can be attenuant aerobic chroma, at the same time the meeting when aeriform escape takes away a large number of quantity of heat. 3 get together cyanogen amine compares tall azotic source to be used at nitrogen as price of a kind of sex is fire retardant. Use get together pyrrole (PPy) small capsule is changed 3 get together of Fu of cyanogen amine bag get together ammonium phosphate (MAPP) gets PPy-MAPP, apply fire retardant in epoxy resin, with identical the MAPP photograph that adds a capacity is compared, the epoxy resin that adds PPy-MAPP has better flame retardation and curb smoke property. The synthesis such as ZHU 3 get together cyanogen amine phenyl second phosphoric acid (MABP) , as a result of the affiliation of MABP, the flame retardation of epoxy resin and the compact sex that condense photograph carbon layer rise effectively, at the same time the aerosol of epoxy resin is released rate get reducing. Although azotic department fire retardant has better environment friendly sex, but its consistence is poorer, and flame retardant the effect is finite, normally need and other fire retardant cooperate to use. 1.3 phosphor - nitrogen in coordination fire retardant

In studying at present, major person is a foundation with NP element, add other element synthesis to cooperate with at the same time fire retardant, better with achieving flame retardant the effect, general metropolis adds sulfur, silicon, boron and tantalum to wait undertake cooperating with modified. Expand for example model fire retardant, it is the compound fire retardant that is main composition with nitrogen, phosphor.

LIU through using nitrogen source, DOPO and synthesized PmDOH of fire retardant of nitrogen of phosphor of a kind of reaction silicon to hydroxyl benzene formaldehyde, with its carbon measures the epoxy resin incomplete after modified to increase gradually, build more compact, successive structural carbon layer in combustion process. Housing gets together candy radical expands model fire retardant is new-style compound fire retardant, as a result of element of N, P while add its to hold an agglomeration concurrently polite bearing is flame retardant action, can gift the flame retardation with certain epoxy resin. Integrated contrast department of a few kinds of nitrogen and phosphor - nitrogen cooperates with the fire retardant LOI value to epoxy resin flame retardation and limiting oxygen index, see a table 2.

China unsaturated polyester resin (UPR)

1.4 other and new-style fire retardant

At present a lot of people begin to consider to use new-style material not to have bittern fire retardant for raw material preparation, among them POSS kind fire retardant is most outstanding. Polyhedron is low get together alkyl of oxygen of times half silicon (POSS) is a kind of new-style accept rice is miscellaneous turn material, type of its model chemistry is RSiO1.5. Produce more incomplete carbon when the meeting when its burn, the silicon carbon layer that can produce hot stability at the same time, migratory burn in order to prevent as covering layer to EP surface.

The preparation such as FENG fire retardant of silicon of a kind of new-style phosphor (KAPP-OGPOS) , it is 3 times of epoxy resin purer that classics experiment is measured so that the carbon of epoxy resin incomplete after modified measures, can make quantity of heat, aerosol, CO and CO2 are released, decrease respectively 79% , 83% , 80% with 82.5% . Offerred a kind of new thinking for modified epoxy resin. Attainable POSS/D-bp/DGEBA is miscellaneous in using POSS and DOPO synthesis fire retardant to introduce annulus oxygen system subsequently turn composite material. The experiment proves, the heat of composite material releases rate peak value to be reduced significantly, vitrification transition temperature promotes somewhat, at the same time mechanical function also gets ameliorative. Key of the Si—O in POSS structure can improve mechanical performance effectively, but the cost of POSS is higher, it is the main factor that restricts its to develop.

2 inorganic fire retardant apply mediumly in epoxy resin

2.1 aluminium fasten fire retardant

In fire retardant market, the material that aluminous department fire retardant basically uses is hydration alumina, its have agglomeration flame retardant action. When its be heated decomposes meeting change to be AlO(OH) , can absorb combustion quantity of heat, drop combustion temperature, stiff annulus carbonization happens when at the same time stimulative polymer burns.

The advantage of aluminous department fire retardant depends on cost inferior, but add a capacity taller. For promotion flame retardant efficiency, improve the consistence with matrix, can be opposite Al2O3 modified. Use alumina to be added overspend change fire retardant (PTDOB) modified epoxy resin, get EP(Al2O3-PTDOB/EP) of sex of solid of a new-style heat. The experiment reachs, the epoxy resin after modified not only flame retardation gets promotion, as a result of the accretion of Al2O3, the thermal conductivity of material also gets promotion [14] . Use new-style expand model fire retardant and hydroted alumina (epoxy resin of ATH) collective modified gets FR/EP composite material, the material after making clear modified can build stable carbolic layer, rise to prevent what can burn gas to release, the action of heat insolation and block oxygen.

2.2 magnesium fasten fire retardant

Magnesian department fire retardant basically changes magnesium for oxyhydrogen. Be sufferred pyrolysis to be when its by the meeting when high temperature magnesian with water, the water that generates at the same time can absorb a large number of quantity of heat, drop in temperature matrix in order to achieve flame retardant result. WEN [14] uses oxyhydrogen to change magnesian etc material to synthesize TRPAM-MEL of agent of a kind of inorganic solidify, the experiment proves, show exceedingly good flame retardation at the same time when its apply at epoxy resin system. Use oxyhydrogen to change magnesian microcrystalline beard (Mw-MH) serves as super the discovery in enhancing material to join epoxy resin, as a result of the network structure that jam, magnesian microcrystalline beard and traditional industry oxyhydrogen change hydrogen the fire prevention performance with magnesian more superior than having photograph.

2.3 boron fasten fire retardant

Boracic department fire retardant has the characteristic of smoke of low poison, curb. Traditional boracic department fire retardant basically is form for raw material by borate, form vitreous body to enclothe the surface to prevent combustion when the meeting when its burn, also can generate water to absorb quantity of heat to achieve flame retardant result at the same time.

At present also investigator uses nitrogen to change boron and boracic 2 dimension material to have the research with flame retardant epoxy resin. Use get together methylic acrylic glycol ester (what PGMA) catenary and DOPO reaction form the structure that pay chain is flame retardant the function changes BNNS. The result makes clear, BNNS controls hot exchange and quality trade through forming continuously with concentrated barrier layer, restrain the generation that can burn gas through enhancing action in coordination at the same time. The synthesis such as LYU gives a fire retardant of new-style the PBA-Salen-Ni that do not have phosphor, the incomplete carbon that makes the epoxy resin combustion after its modified arises has special poriferous structure, prevent soot effectively deliver diffuse, because the curb smoke sex of this epoxy resin gets better improvement. Integrated contrast is opposite a few kinds without type fire retardant the LOI value of epoxy resin flame retardation and limiting oxygen index, see a table 3. Express 3 inorganic fire retardant to be opposite the flame retardation collect of epoxy resin

China unsaturated polyester resin (UPR)

Inorganic fire retardant has the characteristic with relatively stable, low price, but its are bigger to the influence of physical machinery function of material, often need modified processing.

3 conclusion and look into

Will integratedly look, phosphorous department fire retardant is better to the modified effect of epoxy resin, achieve than be in with other type fire retardant identical and flame retardant of the need when the effect add a capacity lesser. The synergism of element of nitrogen, phosphor makes fire retardant is had a variety of flame retardant mechanism, outstanding to the flame retardation effect of improved epoxy resin. The fire retardant of inorganic type is had mostly flame retardant with heat conduction duplex, also have at the same time organic - inorganic is miscellaneous the fire retardant that change is in ceaseless research and development. What can pass design acerbity source, gas source, carbon source to optimize fire retardant on the whole is flame retardant the effect. Epoxy resin is one of important high polymer material, use a field as what will naturally enlarge epoxy resin without the research of bittern fire retardant. Accordingly, when designing fire retardant, besides the anti-flammability with admirable consideration, also should go from the direction of mechanical function and thermal conductivity modified epoxy resin, make its hold a versatility concurrently.

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