Reforming and opening comes more than 40 years, manufacturing industry can says economic “ presses cabin stone ” , hold significant economic position from beginning to end. " make 2025 " piece point out namely, “ manufacturing industry is the main body of national economy, be establish a country this, allow a country implement, of powerful nation base. ”Regard entity as economic delegate, manufacturing industry is the main carrier of innovation force, also be the fundamental force that moves toward economic powerful nation. Enter 2021, economy welcomes challenge of unprecedented inside and outside. Is the future of manufacturing industry moved toward how? How to come true from chase overtake? Regard manufacturing industry as competition ability strong one of, the development transition of Japanese manufacturing industry draws lessons from a meaning to marching toward production powerful nation to have.

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Origin | " forum " reach forum net (Rmltwz)   author | One   manufacturing industry casting mixes   of of Xu Mei of researcher of institute of Japan of social academy of sciences prop up Japan of   of position of power of afterwar Japan economy is a the latercomers surpass the formers to develop industry. After Ming Zhiwei is new, japan is designed through studying the management thought of Euramerican and latter-day industrialization, system and introduce foreign advanced technique and device, accelerated industrialized process, changed manufacturing industry instability, structure unreasonable wait for a state. To the front of World War II, the industry such as Japanese iron and steel, mechanical, enginery, car, plane already had particular actual strength, for manufacturing industry development laid a foundation. After World War II, development of Japanese manufacturing industry basically experienced 4 level. 01   phase: Manufacturing industry rises abruptly quickly, facilitating Japan economy grows “ miracle ” . Afterwar and earlier, japan carries out understanding to come loose the democratization reform such as reform of plutocrat, farming land, promoted the development of social productivity, created a condition for manufacturing industry and growth of economic high speed. 02   the 2nd phase: 20 centuries crisis of 70 time oil erupts, drive transition of success of Japanese manufacturing industry. This one period, japan begins to drive transition of structure of the sources of energy energetically, guide and drive manufacturing industry to be used up from resource model course of study of heavy chemical industry transforms to industry of technology intensive of feebleminded bad news. 03   the 3rd phase: 20 centuries after ” of economy of bubble of the “ at the beginning of 90 time breaks down, japanese manufacturing industry seeks an outlet in predicament. Japan adopts loose monetary policy, ” of economic “ bubble expands, coast of advantage of manufacturing industry competition. 04   the 4th phase: Since 21 centuries, japanese exert oneself builds new dominant position of manufacturing industry competition. If further perfect regulation makes system, raise informatization rate, breed innovation model wait with skill talent. Proprietor of an enterprise of Japanese manufacturing industry moves transition, in managing production of modern element infuse, deepen industrial confluence ceaselessly, appeared a few new change and new trend, if active aggrandizement serves a function, from before change direction to be given priority to in order to provide value service gradually with offerring commodity to give priority to; Serve through add on commodity poor dissimilation, individuation, form the competition ability with new company; Improve a service level and enter a doorsill, avert intense price war. Can say, manufacturing industry service turns development tide, had become enterprise of Japanese manufacturing industry to promote a product a of additional cost and competition ability important way. Be like again, as new coronal of pneumonic epidemic situation spread, digitlization becomes Japan to promote a when industry and economy anabiosis important grasper. Japanese government drives an enterprise actively to accelerate adjust, manufacturing industry digitlization, intelligence changes transition to will greet great progress period. Japanese manufacturing industry why powerful? 2   are current, position of manufacturing industry power still firm. Although the measure that Japan applies already was surmounted, but still not allow in quality and influence respect small gaze, and its wait for burgeoning domain to still be in lead position in medical treatment of environmental protection of recycle of new material, robot, resource, zoology, biology. Why Japanese manufacturing industry is like is this powerful? Compare from culture of historical inheritance, dynamic development, society and international wait for perspective analysis, basically have the following the reason of 5 respects: 01   takes education and education seriously to specialization talent, it is the basis that Japanese manufacturing industry develops. Japan has the tradition that values education. In period of government office of heart plain act, japan established advanced culture to teach an orgnaization. Bright manage period, advanced technique of west of Japanese general study, build contemporary education system to serve as extended program. After World War II, japan grows development education as stimulative economy and overtake Euramerican one great put forth effort is nodded. 1947, japan is promulgated " educational basic law " and " the school teachs a law " , obligation of population of of the right age educational fixed number of year is lengthened from 6 years to 9 years, the key popularizes high school education later. Nowadays, japan has become entire nation to get educational rate tall one of, also by accepted be is national quality is higher one of. Professional education is the main component in Japanese education system, for manufacturing industry development carried a large number of specializationing, actual combat talent. 02   pays attention to technical progress and high quality product, it is the core element with Japanese powerful manufacturing industry. Below as bigger as Euramerican economy difference case, japan is made and carry out " foreign capital law " , encourage an enterprise to introduce technology of advanced foreign country. Period increases in economic high speed, the foreign technology twice that Japan introduces grows. The enterprise tries to reform and innovate to these technologies according to actual condition, produce the product that gives demand of more contented market, shortened thereby Japan overtakes Euramerican process. A research that occupies Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development makes clear, 60 time go to 20 centuries 80 time metaphase, the main reason that Japanese economy adds United States of fast prep above is technical progress. Add level of strong, technology to rise ceaselessly gradually as economic actual strength, the effect of Japanese transfer of technology disappears gradually, the technology develops mode to begin to transform to own research and development. Technical innovation and achievement industrialization, the additional cost that often means a product, function get farther promotion. But, if be in,unwarrantable product pledges quantity, realize the original intention of innovation very hard. In river door times, japan formed ” of “ craftsman spirit, embedded respect the culture power such as profit of course of study, dedicated, seed. The development of this one spirit and inheritance, the high quality that promoted Japanese manufacturing industry develops, make Japanese product becomes the pronoun of high quality. 03   government gives an enterprise to support in order to direct with policy, and exert oneself makes favorable system environment. Japanese government admits to the state is made and implement different industrial policy according to industry of different period country, lead the production of the enterprise and direction of management, and give on revenue of finance, finance, technology assist, upgrade in order to promote industrial structure. Afterwar and earlier, japan executes “ to tilt producer type ” , will limited natural resources is unified use, after tilting to coal industry, expand gradually again other industry. 20 centuries 50 time, japan establishs Japan to develop public library of finance of bank of bank, Japanese imports and exports, medium and small businesses to wait for orgnaization of policy sex finance, provide financing support for the enterprise. 04   enterprise pays attention to spot practice and compose to build stable collaboration to concern. Lifelong employ is made, year the important pillar that work series is made is management system of afterwar Japan company. The enterprise is stabilized because of service concern and apt invests for a long time to employee, foster and improve skill of its knowledge reserve, spot and integrated quality. Business management personnel rises from basic level doing normally, because had experienced post to be mixed by turns,chase a layer to promote to a high office, compare understanding to basic level, connect regular meeting to take cogent the way to deal with a situation in the light of actual condition. Can say, “ sets out from the spot ” is a crucial essential factor that Japanese manufacturing industry forms international competition advantage. The enterprise is in through adding the service on commodity, thorough spot undertakes be tracked in time and assurance to client demand, grind sentence change of market supply and demand. Additional, japanese enterprise pays attention to compose to build the cooperation that stabilizes for a long time to concern, if numerous medium and small businesses gathered all round big company, be produced for its and provide component, raw material; Big company and cooperation of division of labor of medium and small businesses, form fluctuation to swim industrial catenary, implementation develops jointly. As Japanese economic situation reform of change, structure is advanced ceaselessly, the government drives local economy to revitalize energetically, more and more medium and small businesses enter burgeoning field, the synergic relationship between manufacturing industry big company and medium and small businesses appears loose dynamic force. Operation of internationalization of 05   enterprise made up for the congenital inadequacy of domestic natural resources and market. Resource the national condition with indigent, narrow market, make Japanese height values foreign trade progress. Because Japanese industry structure upgrades ceaselessly, competition ability of finished products exit rises gradually, even if show in exchange rate of yen add dollar appreciate below the circumstance of fundamental key, the scope that Japanese export trade increases still fast at economic amplitude, favorable balance of trade expands ceaselessly, position of manufacturing industry power is solid. The enterprise carries development foreign trade, solved the problem such as manufacturing raw material, enlarged road of product sea export, formed manufacturing industry and foreign trade development to be relied on each other, the pattern that promotes each other. Increase of development and company actual strength increasingly as economy, abroad and direct investment becomes the important composition content of strategy of Japanese enterprise internationalization. Current, overseas birth rate already amounted to Japanese manufacturing industry 1/4, especially the conveyor tool industry such as the car is more outstanding, and occurrence sale “ turns ” tide now. 1 perfect education mixes   of   of ancient bronze mirror of 3   lens groom system, education is developed model and specialization talent   education decides personnel quality greatly, also close experience manufacturing industry to admit success or failure. The result that Japan values education for a long time is: National whole quality is higher, enterprise, universities and colleges collected numerous and outstanding entrepreneur and skilled personnel. Professional education of Japan and enterprise groom system, enhanced the professional technical ability of employee not only, promoted the further development of manpower resources latent capacity; Also made employee form attributive feeling, club spirit and production concept, be full of “ spot in great quantities to manufacturing industry development is fostered and was carried feeling ” and devoted to of the enterprise specialization talent. Change in content couplet net, intelligence, the new period that data spends great progress, the talent's importance more dash forward show, the focus of a raise of competition of race to control that already made. Face this one situation, need is mixed soundly as soon as possible perfect education system, expand professional education energetically; Explore the policy such as privilege of individual income tax, guide outstanding talent to flow into manufacturing industry; Teach the profession field of outspread take office, encourage an enterprise to strengthen right from personnel of course of study groom, make its master new knowledge, new mastery of a skill or technique in time, get used to new technology, new pattern better, satisfy manufacturing industry and economy to develop to be changed to high end continuously then, specialization the talent's demand. In the meantime, want to publicize seed profit to create a concept through grooming, education and inheritance company culture. Innovation of 2 stimulative technologies and achievement industrialization, strengthening intellectual property to protect   technology to innovate is the impulsion of manufacturing industry and hypostatic economy progress. Japan values investment of science and technology for a long time, place of achievement of research and development obtains quantitative be among the best of candidates, also take the industrialization of achievement of science and technology seriously at the same time, in order to realize the value of innovation and meaning. 1998, japan is promulgated carry out " the technical research achievement that waits about promoting an university to civilian career person the law that make over " , encourage an university to establish a technology to transfer an orgnaization. Up to May 2020 end, the university technology that Japanese government maintains transfers an orgnaization to have 34, distributing in each district college. These orgnaizations and organization are produced to promoting learn it is collaboration, important to drove industry technology progress and industrial structural adjustment to develop action. Not only such, japan still takes intellectual property protection seriously, the code that formed to be perfected quite system, to innovate independently and escort the Emperor independently convoy. Current, had ascended personally at the amount big country, but component of a few core, equipment, still count an import machine tool of numerical control of chip of the high end in be like, engine, high end and medical apparatus and instruments, and the industrialization degree of achievement of research and development remains to rise. Although be seleted 500 strong industry measures to increase ceaselessly, but high-end production industry and civilian battalion company are less. To this, on one hand, need strengthens basic research in crucial domain and link as early as possible, promote the cooperation of financial service and innovation chain. In the meantime, should gift droit of achievement of researcher part science and technology, arouse the enthusiasm that its research and development innovates; Should optimize configuration of scientific research resource, promote produce learn to grind deepness is shirt-sleeve, will various achievement conformity is formed. On the other hand, be necessary to prompt innovation essential factor to enterprise assemble, concerned technology move, society is established in each district the orgnaization such as price of evaluation of check of tripartite achievement, the catalysis that makes its become industrialization of achievement of science and technology implement. In the meantime, also need to perfect intellectual property to protect a system further, increase the castigatory strength of pair of tort behavior, raise dimension authority efficiency and tort cost, make college and place of scientific research courtyard and enterprise devote oneself to basic research and own technology development. This also is the real need that development of science and technology and economy grow continuously. ” of spirit of craftsman of 3 education “ , promotion product quality and service ability   go to day of tourist to buy medical makeup to taste in great quantities, electric equipment and even commodity, besides value of Sino-Japanese and demand, congener to the experience of exotic culture product difference narrows besides, mainer reason is pair of Japanese product quality approbate. And high quality product of Japan comes from at ” of spirit of its “ craftsman. Come to put add originally now the enterprise know exactly about sth of hundred years above 10 thousand, japanese enterprise is long-term deep ploughing this course of study, essence of life produces character to measure n cultivated land. Notable is, to ” of “ craftsman spirit, also the scholar points out, the excessive play of this one spirit brings about his to produce moral character price to compare reduce, manufacturing cost rises. Economic growth is in from before investment pulls tendercy consumption use change, consumptive structure upgrades ceaselessly, consumer is mixed to commodity the demand of the service with each passing day diversification and essence are refined, taller also to the requirement of character, high quality development becomes the crucial essential factor that manufacturing industry industry is able to survive in competition and continues. Accordingly, answer to breed ” of “ craftsman spirit energetically, balance the relation of good quality and cost, efficiency, perfect certificate of quality and administrative system, ensure product quality. In the meantime, answer to break away from low-level heavy reproduction to resemble as soon as possible, turn into the additional cost content is higher link in industrial catenary, dedicated at product deep treatment, finish machining, promote Wu of product quality kimono capability continuously. 4 governments produce oriented effect, compose builds the bank of system environment   that is helpful for enterprise innovation and competition the relation of the government of the refer in developing a report 1997 and market, point out the development model with “ successful great majority, be the near future no matter still is the history go up, it is government and market correct the market to be out of order and forming collaboration to concern to be achieved thereby is not to replace market ” . Japanese government changes according to the development of economic situation of inside and outside and adjust industrial policy and program ceaselessly, guide company future to develop way, make industrial structure upgrade, pay attention to at the same time strengthen a system to build, aggrandizement is supervised restrict a mechanism, be worth us to draw lessons from. Below market economic system, the enterprise is the principal part that economy grows, because this needs to hold to an enterprise first principle, and governmental action basically should be reflected in guide an enterprise to develop way, promote social natural resources through the policy shift such as revenue of finance, finance optimize configuration. The government should give aid to burgeoning industry grows, drive an enterprise to produce management rationalize, uphold market regulation and order. Start because of market economy later, of the industry commercialize degree to remain to rise. The government is necessary farther brief politics put power, promote state-owned company reform, promote development of civilian battalion economy, aggrandizement executes the law supervise, the system environment that for the enterprise creation is helpful for developing innovation, fair competition, promote manufacturing industry and efficiency of hypostatic economy promotion thereby. 5 increase give aid to strength, 99% what arouse medium and small businesses to make the amount of medium and small businesses of vigor   Japan that reachs innovation hold company sum total about, it is the backbone power that Japanese manufacturing industry expands, also be the main position that Japanese technology innovates. Relative to at big company character, scope of medium and small businesses is little, in financing, absorbing ability, technology development, product enters the respect such as the market to be in inferior position. To give aid to its develop, japan took a lot of step, if establish public library of finance of medium and small businesses (reorganizationed 2008 for public library of Japanese policy finance) , public library of national life finance (reorganizationed 2008 for public library of Japanese policy finance) , the orgnaization of policy sex finance such as exchequer of business class combination, the low interest that offers different term for medium and small businesses borrows money; Establish credence of medium and small businesses to assure public library of credit insurance of association, medium and small businesses, for its application loan is offerred assure and be sure. In, medium and small businesses shows a tremendous development potential and innovation vigor. Like numerous medium and small businesses, medium and small businesses also is faced with financing market of inadequacy of difficult, talent, sale is limited wait for a problem, the development that affects its to serve new technology, new merchandise, newly reachs management reform. For this, urgent need perfects the policy system of concerned medium and small businesses, ensure its manage resource. In respect of innovation of research and development, can draw lessons from Japanese practice, the different level that is aimed at research and development of medium and small businesses, real progress, grant the support of different level and allowance, reduce its risk, encourage its to develop new product, new channel. 6 strengthen manufacturing industry in the round own capability, sufficient and effective use “ outer circulation”Japan is commerce those who liberalize is big be benefited one of countries, but depend on sb or sth for existence of its foreign trade is spent not tall, basically develop under Europe, Singapore, Korea, etc. From the point of the commodity structure of commerce, the self-sufficient rate such as the energy resources with necessary place of Japanese made, life, commissariat is inferior, need tries to solve through ” of “ outer circulation. In the meantime, japan also is the person be benefited that investment liberalizes. 20 centuries after 80 time metaphase, enterprise of Japanese manufacturing industry large quantities of trends are abroad, internationalization operation level rises ceaselessly, overseas accumulated wealth of a huge sum. Current, faces international politics economic situation is complex and grim, rise abruptly quickly with Japanese manufacturing industry the external environment not to be named on the same day with of period. New coronal is pneumonic catenary of the industry below epidemic situation, supply catenary to adjust accelerate, the main economy system such as beautiful day encourages manufacturing industry circumfluence, drive abroad supply catenary diversity. Those who regard manufacturing industry as big country, inevitably meeting is affected. To enhance the initiative that economy grows, should drive in order to review close smooth comrade puts forward for the party of core form the new development structure that gives priority to double loop of international of body, home to be promoted each other with domestic systemic circulation. Here the situation falls, on one hand, manufacturing industry needs to use already had more complete infrastructure and manufacturing industry system, stimulative convention industry and burgeoning industry, manufacturing industry and the deepness that serve economy of course of study, number and hypostatic economy are shirt-sleeve, accelerate perfect industry catenary link of high additional cost, expand and dig greatly inside need, stimulate consumption; On the other hand, need give attention to two or morethings mixes manufacturing industry to use ” of “ outer circulation effectively, promote efficient, tall qualitative development, to creation big country and transition of production powerful nation.

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