One, definition

Phenolic aldehyde colophonyAlso call bakelite, call bakelite pink again. It is colorless or cinnamon transparency formerly, market sale often adds colorant and show red, yellow, black, green, palm, blue wait for color, have grain, pulverous state. Be able to bear or endure weak acid and weak base, encounter strong acid happening to decompose, encounter alkali happening to corrode. Not dissolve at water, dissolve in the organic dissolvent such as acetone, alcohol. Phenol aldehyde or its ramification condensation polymerization and.

Chinese name

Phenolic aldehyde colophony

Chemical type


English name


Molecular quantity


Another namer


CASEntry date


Be born


2, main function

Colophony of solid phenolic aldehyde is material of yellow, transparent, amorphous lump, show small red because of containing free phenol, hypostatic proportion is average 1.7 the left and right sides, easy dissolve Yu Chun, not dissolve at water, stable to solution of water, weak acid, weak base. Condensation polymerization, classics falls to counteract in activator condition by phenol and formaldehyde, bath and the resin that makes. Because of choosing activator different, can distinguish the firm that it is heat gender and thermoplastic two kinds. Phenolic aldehyde colophony has good acid-proof performance, mechanical function, heat-resisting property, apply extensively at anticorrosion project, adhesive, flame retardant material, emery wheel piece make wait for an industry.

Colophony of liquid phenolic aldehyde is liquid of yellow, nigger-brown, be like: Colophony of alkalescent phenolic aldehyde basically is done cast cohere agent.

High temperature capability

The feature with phenolic aldehyde main colophony is high temperature resistant quality, although be below very high temperature, also can maintain the stability of the integral sex of its structure and dimension. because of this reason, phenolic aldehyde colophony just is applied at domain of a few high temperature, for example fireproof material, attrition material, binder and cast an industry.

Bonding strength

A fundamental application regards phenolic aldehyde colophony as binder namely. Phenolic aldehyde colophony is a kind muti_function, with various organic the material that can contain with inorganic filling. Design correct phenolic aldehyde colophony, profit wet rate is particularly rapid. And be after cross-linking can provide to grind, fireproof material, attrition material and bakelite pink provide the mechanical strength of a need, heat-resisting function and electric function.

Colophony of water-solubility phenolic aldehyde or colophony of phenolic aldehyde of mellow dissolve sex are used to the material with macerate paper, cotton cloth, glass, asbestine and similar other provides mechanical strength for them, electric function. Typical case includes electric insulation and mechanical lamination to make, clutch piece use filter paper with car filter.

Tall incomplete carbon is led

Below the inert gase condition that is 1000 ℃ about in temperature, phenolic aldehyde colophony can produce very tall incomplete carbon, this is helpful for maintaining stability of structure of phenolic aldehyde resinous. Phenolic aldehyde resinous this kind is characteristic, also be a when it can use at fireproof material domain main reason.

Low smoke low poison

Compare with photograph of other colophony system, system of phenolic aldehyde colophony has the advantage of low smoke low poison. Below flaming circumstance, produce system of manufacturing phenolic aldehyde colophony with scientific recipe, will slow decompose generation hydric, hydrocarbon, vapor and carbolic oxide. The smoke that in decomposing a process, produces is relatively little, noxiousness is relatively low also. These characteristics make phenolic aldehyde colophony is applied to communal carry and the domain with safe very strict requirement, be like mine, defend column and bldg. .

Fight chemical sex

The phenolic aldehyde colophony after cross-linking can boycott any chemical material decompose. For example benzine, oil, mellow, glycol, grease and all sorts of hydrocarbons. Because its fight chemical stability, suit to be used at making hutch defend purifying device of appliance, drinking water (phenolic aldehyde carbon fiber) , use tea service of bakelite tea tray, extensively at can to reach pull coal tub easily (standard GB 05009.069-2003) , the food drink such as liquid container packages data in.

Heat treatment

Heat treatment can raise temperature of solidify resinous vitrification, can improve resinous further each function. Vitrification temperature and crystallization solid are like the fused condition likeness of polypropylene. The vitrification temperature at the beginning of phenolic aldehyde colophony and concern in the solidify temperature that solidify phase place uses first. Heat treatment process can raise cross-linking resinous fluidity to make reaction happen further, at the same time OK also the volatilization that eliminate remains is phenolic, reduce systole, enhance dimension stability, hardness and high temperature strength. In the meantime, colophony also incline to is mixed at systole become fragile. Colophony aftertreatment warms up the curve will depend on the solidify condition at the beginning of colophony and colophony system.

Epispastic sex

Phenolic aldehyde bubble is by phenolic aldehyde colophony is passed epispastic and a kind of gotten expanded plastics. With inchoate the data phase such as the polystyrene bubble that takes market dominant place, polyvinyl chloride bubble, polyurethane foam is compared, in flame retardant it has the side special good performance. Its weight is light, tigidity is big, dimension stability is good, be able to bear or endure chemistry is corroded, hear resistance is good, flame retardant, from extinguish, low aerosol, fireproof blaze is penetrable, encounter fire to not have asperse fall content, the price is low, it is electric equipment, appearance, building, petro-chemical wait for the insulation material of insulation heat insolation with relatively good industry, be taken seriously extensively of people consequently.

Phenolic aldehyde bubble already made one of variety with the rapid development in expanded plastics. Consumption grows ceaselessly, applied limits expands ceaselessly, domestic and international research and development are quite active. However, the weak point with phenolic aldehyde big bubble is brittleness big, percent opening is tall, because this raises its tenacity,be the crucial technology that improves performance of phenolic aldehyde bubble.

3, synthesize craft
1, addition reaction
Below proper condition, a yuan of hydroxide is methylic reaction of phenol proceed addition, can generate n duality to reach multivariate hydroxide is methylic phenol.

China unsaturated polyester resin (UPR)

2, condensation and condensation polymerization reaction
Condensation and condensation polymerization react, those who follow reaction condition is different OK in hydroxide happening between methylic phenol and phenol element, also can happen in each hydroxide between methylic phenol element.

China unsaturated polyester resin (UPR)
The result that condensation reaction has ceaselessly is the phenolic aldehyde resin that condensation polymerization molds particular element to measure, because condensation polymerization reaction has progressively characteristic, intermediate child comparatives to stability can depart consequently and try to consider. Will study the analysis thinks normally for years, synthesis of resinous of influence phenolic aldehyde, structure and characteristic main factor are as follows at 4 o'clock: (The chemical structure of 1) raw material; (The Maerbi of 2) phenol and aldehyde; (The acid of 3) reaction medium, alkalescent; (4) produces operation method. How is understanding added get together reaction and condensation polymerization reaction
Add get together reaction and condensation polymerization reaction are two kinds of when synthesize organic high polymer basic response. These two kinds of reaction although by monomer (young member) generation high polymer (macromolecule) reaction, but they or the distinction that having essence. Add get together the abbreviation that reaction is addition polymerization reaction, it is to point to it is monomer with not saturated hydrocarbon or the material that contain not saturated key, pass the addition of not saturated key, polymerization becomes the reaction of high polymer. For example, ethylene is added get together Cheng Juyi Xi, it is to be below proper temperature, intensity of pressure and the condition that activator exists, the Shuang Jian in ethylene element can rupture an among them key, produce addition reaction, make the carbolic atom in ethylene element writtens guarantee synthesis is very long key. The child of reaction is polyethylene, it is the compound with very great quality of a kind of opposite element, its element composition can express to be (C2H4)n. Add get together the monomer that reaction reacts according to attending is phyletic, divide again to all get together reaction and copolymerization react. Add by what a kind of monomer happens only get together reaction is called all get together reaction, the reaction that synthesizes polyethylene all gets together namely reaction. The aggregate reaction that attends jointly by monomer of two kinds of above calls copolymerization reaction. For example, the reaction that synthesizes butadiene styrene rubber is copolymerization reaction namely.

Add get together the characteristic of reaction is:
(1) monomer must be the compound that contains the not saturated key such as Shuang Jian. For example, the nitrile of chloric ethylene, propylene material that contains not saturated key, below certain condition, OK happening add get together reaction. (2) add get together reaction happening is on not saturated key. (3) happen add get together in the process of reaction, arise without by-product, the chemical composition that gets the chemical composition of high polymer follows monomer is identical. (4) add get together the high polymer that reaction makes is monomer relative to molecular quality the integer of opposite element quality times.

Condensation polymerization reaction is the abbreviation that condensation polymerization reacts, it is to show interaction makes high polymer between monomer, still make young member at the same time (wait like hydrogen of water, ammonia, halogenate) aggregate reaction. Synthesizing phenolic aldehyde resinous to react for example is condensation polymerization reaction. Synthesizing phenolic aldehyde colophony is normally it is raw material with phenol and formaldehyde, below activator action, classics condensation polymerization reacts and get. Condensation polymerization reaction is counted according to attending the monomer of reaction to plant divide again for in all condensation polymerization and all condensation polymerization, the condensation polymerization reaction that attends by not akin monomer is called in all condensation polymerization. Like phenolic aldehyde resinous synthesis reacts even if in all condensation polymerization, by phenol and formaldehyde two kinds of material are monomer it. The condensation polymerization reaction that has by akin monomer is called all condensation polymerization. If amino acerbity polymerization becomes the condensation polymerization of polypeptide,reaction is belonged to all condensation polymerization. The characteristic that condensation polymerization reacts is:
(1) monomer does not contain not saturated key certainly, but must contain two or the reaction of two above base round (wait like —OH, —COOH, —NH2, —X) . (2) the result that condensation polymerization reacts, make high polymer not only, and still have by-product (young member) generate. (3) the chemical composition that the chemical composition of compound of earning high polymer follows monomer is different. By go up visible, add get together the chemical composition of mechanism of reaction and the monomer structure that condensation polymerization reacts, reaction, child is disparate.

4, craft phylogeny

1905 ~ 1909 L.H. Bei Kelan reachs his to shape to phenolic aldehyde colophony the research that craft had a system, in Berlin the factory built Lvgesi 1910 company of colophony of general phenolic aldehyde, realized industrial production.

1911 J.W. Aiersiwosai puts forward to use 6 methylene 4 amine solidify is thermoplastic phenolic aldehyde colophony, made the plastic product with good performance, won wide application.

1969, developed by American corundum company with phenol - the fiber that formaldehyde colophony makes for raw material, throw production by company of Er of Japanese radical Nuo subsequently. Now the United States, Russia and also have production. Production of phenolic aldehyde resinous does not decline up to now, total 1984 output makes an appointment with 1946kt, resinous of sex of the solid that reside heat.

From 20 centuries 40 time begin production, crop was 77.6kt 1984. The raw material with commonly used production methods is phenol, benzene 2 phenol, cresol, 2 cresol, right butyl of father's younger brother or wait to phenyl phenol and formaldehyde, furfural. Manufacturing process includes condensation polymerization and dehydrate two paces. Throw raw material reactor by the recipe and mix even, join activator, agitate, heat to 55 ~ 65 ℃ , reaction exothermic makes stock warms up automatically to boiling. After this, continue to heat maintain small boiling (98 ℃ of 96 ~ ) to terminus, expect via can going out after decompression dehydrate. Develop successful and successive condensation polymerization to manufacture new technology of phenolic aldehyde colophony. The PH of the chemical structure that affects the main factor of colophony synthesis and function to be phenol and aldehyde, Maerbi and reaction medium. The Maerbi of phenol and aldehyde is more than or be equal to 1 when, initiative child is one hydroxide methylic phenol, , line resin is made when condensation polymerization; Be less than 1 when, generate much hydroxide methylic phenolic ramification, formation condensation polymerization resin but cross-linking solidify. The PH of reaction medium is less than 7 when, generated hydroxide is methylic phenol is very flabby calm, thread of easy condensation polymerization colophony; PH is more than 7 when, condensation polymerization is slow, be helpful for much hydroxide of methylic phenolic ramification generate. Production is thermoplastic commonly used hydrochloric acid, phosphoric acid, oxalic acid makes phenolic aldehyde resin activator (see soda acid activator) make medium PH is 0.5 ~ 1.5. To avoid acuteness boiling, activator can be divided second join. Boiling reaction time is 3 ~ 6h commonly. Dehydration can be in often be pressed or undertake below decompression, eventually dehydration temperature is 140 ~ 160 ℃ , colophony element quantity is 500 ~ 900. Colophony of phenolic aldehyde of sex of manufacturing hot firm can use oxyhydrogen to change baryta of sodium, hydrogen, ammonia water and zinc oxide to make activator, boiling reaction time 1 ~ 3h, dehydration temperature does not exceed 90 ℃ commonly, colophony element quantity is 500 ~ 1000. Alkali activator is helpful for increasing resinous hydroxide methylic content and the photograph dissolve sex with water. Ammoniac activator can attend colophony to convert reaction directly, the colophony element volume that identical recipe makes is higher, water-solubility is poor. Zinc oxide activator can make the resin of phenolic aldehyde of tall ortho-position structure with get stability of keep in storage good.

5, application

Phenolic aldehyde colophony basically is used at making all sorts of plastic, coating, adhesive and synthetic fibre wait.

Compression moulding pink

The compression moulding noodles or vermicelli made from bean or sweet potato starch that produces mould pressing product is phenolic aldehyde resinous one of main use. Use roller to press law, helix to squeeze a law and latex law to make colophony macerate filling mixes with other auxiliary even, again via smashing sift out can be made compression moulding pink. Pink of commonly used wood makes filling, make to create certain tall insulating property and hear resistance, also wait for inorganic filling with pink of micaceous pink, asbestine pink, quartz. Compression moulding pink is usable mould pressing, deliver moulding and inject to shape legal system becomes all sorts of plastic products. Thermoplastic pink of compression moulding of phenolic aldehyde colophony basically is used at making the electric part such as switch, electrical outlet, outlet, product of commodity etc industry. Pink of compression moulding of colophony of phenolic aldehyde of hot solid sex basically is used at making tall report be isolated from to make. Enhance phenolic aldehyde plastic with phenolic aldehyde colophony (basically be colophony of phenolic aldehyde of hot solid sex) solution or latex macerate all sorts of fiber and its fabric, all sorts of buildup that what shape via dry, suppress plastic it is important industrial data. It not only mechanical intensity tall, integral performance is good, and can undertake machining. The phenolic aldehyde that with fibre glass, quartz fiber and its fabric enhance is plastic and main use at making all sorts of brake chafe piece with chemical anticorrosion plastic; Tall silicon oxygen

The phenolic aldehyde that fibre glass and carbon fiber enhance is plastic be spaceflight industry is important be able to bear or endure ablation material.

Phenolic aldehyde coating

The phenolic aldehyde colophony that with the phenolic aldehyde colophony of colophony modified, Ding Chun ether changes and colophony, right to phenolic aldehyde of butyl of father's younger brother colophony of phenyl phenolic aldehyde all with tung-oil, flaxseed oil has good compatibility, it is the important raw material of coating industry. Before both use at making up low, intermediate paint, hind both use at making up advanced paint.

Phenolic aldehyde glue

Colophony of phenolic aldehyde of hot solid sex also is the important raw material of adhesive. Sex of onefold glue of phenolic aldehyde colophony is fragile, basically use at the felt of plywood and sand mold of casting of essence of life. It is with the phenolic aldehyde colophony of modified of other high polymer base the adhesive of makings, important place is had in structural rubber. Among them phenolic aldehyde - fourth nitrile, phenolic aldehyde - shrink aldehyde, phenolic aldehyde - annulus oxygen, phenolic aldehyde - annulus oxygen - shrink aldehyde, phenolic aldehyde - the adhesive such as nylon has hear resistance the characteristic with good, high bonding strength. Phenolic aldehyde - fourth nitrile and phenolic aldehyde - shrink aldehyde adhesive still is had fight piece, fight concussion, be able to bear or endure the superior performance such as ageing of damp and hot, it is the admirable breed of structural adhesive.

Phenolic aldehyde fiber

Main with thermoplastic colophony of line phenolic aldehyde is raw material, the dip after classics melt filature makes solidify handle in the aqueous solution at polyformaldehyde and hydrochloric acid, get the fiber of bodily form structure of formaldehyde cross-linking. To increase fiber intensity and modular amount, but the filature after with 5% ~ 10% polyamide frit are mixed. This kind of fiber is golden or yellow brown fiber, intensity is 11.5 ~ 15.9cN/dtex, flame resistance can be outstanding, limiting oxygen index is 34, the oxygen that contacts nearly 7500 ℃ for an instant - acetylene blaze, not melt also is not delayed light, have from extinguish sex, return ability thick hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid, but be able to bear or endure the performance of vitriolic, nitric acid and alkali is poorer. Basically use as defend take reach flame retardant fabric or interior decoration are tasted, also can use as insulation, heat insolation and heat insulation, filter material, still can machine low intensity, low standard to measure fiber of carbon fiber, activated carbon and ion exchange fiber to wait.

Anticorrosion material

Colophony of phenolic aldehyde of hot solid sex receives a few kinds of forms that region middling uses in anticorrosion: Coating of phenolic aldehyde colophony; Glass reinforced plastics of phenolic aldehyde colophony, phenolic aldehyde - epoxy resin is compound glass reinforced plastics; Puddle of phenolic aldehyde colophony, mortar; Goods of black lead of macerate of phenolic aldehyde colophony, profiling. Cent of form of solidify of resinous of phenolic aldehyde of hot solid sex is normal temperature solidify and hot solidify two kinds. Normal temperature solidify can use NL of agent of solidify of avirulent normal temperature, also can use benzene sulfur acyl chloric or oil sulphur is acerbity, but hind the noxiousness of two kinds of material, excitant bigger. The proposal uses the NL solidify agent with low efficient poison. Filling can choose pink of black lead pink, porcelain pink, quartz, vitriolic barium pink, unfavorable use diabase noodles or vermicelli made from bean or sweet potato starch.

Adiabatic insulation material

Basically be phenolic aldehyde resinous epispastic material, characteristic of product of phenolic aldehyde bubble is heat preservation, heat insolation, fire prevention, qualitative light, as adiabatic, energy-saving, fireproof new material can apply extensively at pledging heat insolation of armor plate of heat preservation colour, building falls air conditioning system, gently can the insulation material of conduit of heat preservation, chemical industry (especially the heat preservation of deep low temperature) , the heat preservation domain of the place such as car boat. Phenolic aldehyde bubble because its coefficient of thermal conductivity is low, heat preservation performance is good, be known as the king of heat preservation. Phenolic aldehyde bubble not only coefficient of thermal conductivity performance of low, heat preservation is good, still have flame retardant, thermal stability good, qualitative light, low smoke, low poison, heat-resisting, mechanical intensity tall, sound insulation, fight chemistry to corrode ability strong, be able to bear or endure Hou Xing is good wait for multinomial advantage, origin of raw material of phenolic aldehyde expanded plastics is rich, the price is low, and manufacturing treatment is simple, product use is extensive.

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