Before to 2025 from now the European Union implements strict code stage by stage, most car manufacturer is in ground of strive to be the first on increase fuel efficiency and / or reduce greenhouse gas to discharge. For this, these original equipment manufacturer are reducing car weight, explore the alternative that replaces dynamical system absorbing is fuel cell. Electric power dispute often has fuel cell those who develop prospect, because two kinds of their common fuel —— are hydric (H2) and compress natural gas (CNG- Compressed-natural Gas) the combustion by-product with exclusive —— is water and heat, this makes 0 discharge a car (ZEV -zero-emissions Vehicles) become a possibility. One of obstacles with fuel big cell are hydrogenous fuel stores. The gas of this kind of imponderability (14 times lighter than air) 3 times energy density is fuel of traditional liquid oil, but bulk energy is gotten less however much. In addition, hydrogenous element is to go up small, store so the impervious of container appears a gender to become a real problem, lest fuel leak. Accordingly, it is H2 outfit very difficult in little space of most car practicable, with enough quantitative correspondence car of current benzine motivation every gasoline tank the travel course of development of 500 kilometers, become especially the target is the implementation below the condition that adding car weight this one target. Although have,replace a method, but practical go up with the car with low cost hydric store method, it is for the compression of 20-70 million handkerchief actuating pressure gas stores in storage tank, double what the dissilient intensity of storage tank must achieve its forehead to decide pressure.

China unsaturated polyester resin (UPR)
Conditional   of Chu Qing is hydric the working principle that store. Hydrogen can store with gas or liquid form. Hydric store as gas need high-pressured canister normally (canister of 350–700 Bar[5000–10000 Psi] is pressed) . Hydrogen stores as the liquid need low temperature, because hydrogen is in,the boiling point below an atmosphere is? 252.8 ℃ . Current, the pressure vessel that has 5 kinds of kinds can use Yu Qing gas to store: I (complete steel) storage tank big cumbersome. II storage tank (with carbon fiber / the steel that epoxy resin base material surrounds or aluminous liner) lighter, but cost is higher. Every can achieve the actuating pressure of 30 million handkerchief, use at bulk is carried or be being secured to store in gas station gas. III storage tank is smaller, but cost is higher, can bear higher actuating pressure (achieve 82.5 MPa, the liner that take aluminium) , basically be used at business to go up with the lorry hydric or natural gas stores. IV memory canister uses high density polyethylene or balata liner uses carbon fiber / epoxy resin laps completely. Light, but costly, they offer canister of similar function type III memory. The liner of memory canister spends polyethylene besides high density (HDPE- High-Densitypolyethylene) outside, still have 3 kinds of half crystallization thermoplastic colophony: Get together to benzene 2 formic acid Ding Erchun ester (Polybutylene Terephthalate) , get together benzene sulfur aether (PPS-Polyphenylene Sulfide) with polyformaldehyde (POM-Polyoxymethylene or shrink aldehyde) . These colophony are had function mixes good machinery to be able to bear or endure high chemistry and osmotic. V: Structure of complete composite material. This canister does not have liner, have composite material of colophony radical carbon fiber to twine but fold or melting core model, composite material of colophony radical carbon fiber bears the weight of all load. Above II, III, IV, V puts storage tank, outer all twine hot solid sex epoxy resin composite material, this kind of material discards as useless a recover is miscellaneous, this is an additional difficult problem for manufacturer to selling the car toward the European Union. Use thermoplastic colophony composite material, not only treatment rate is rapidder, and colophony of sex of specific heat solid is had greater impact strength is mixed but rework sex, can reclaim quality. In addition, thermoplastic colophony can fuse afresh, offerred the opportunity that produces liner and outer packing alone, rise their join next, form canister of type of a whole, can avoid to have a metal / the fatigue problem that appears in composite material mixture material, promote reclaim. Through eliminating coupling hardware (can keep apart) all metals beyond, can decrease or disappear removal of hydrogen embrittlement is fragile corrode with couple. Thermoplastic composite material laser assists winding   thermoplastic composite material (TPCs-Thermoplastic Composites) because its are increasing productivity and the tremendous latent capacity that reduce weight respect, got extensive promotion in recent years. Use TPCs raises a of productivity to get discussion topic is in automatic fine peace keeping adhesive plaster is placed (AFP/ATP) in the process former a solid knot (ISC- In-situ Consolidation) . Come true former a solid knot need when twining material to take, to material belt and substrate heat. Heating method has two kinds: Laser heats with infrared ray. Laser of the following introduction heats: Laser is auxiliary and winding (LATW- Laser-assisted Tape Winding) make, this winding includes laser to assist adhesive plaster to place (LATP-laser-assisted Tape Placement) machine and rotate arbor. Installation of AFP/ATP magnetic head is on CNC6 axis robot, use laser to heat entered adhesive plaster and substrate, fused thermoplastic polymer. Press adhesive plaster on substrate with platen next, in order to promote the agglutinate between the layer and solid form. Layer craft   and any workmanship that add capable person are same, voluble layer also is the problem that a need solves. Agent of drawing of patterns uses on core axis, facilitate core axis is taken out after twining. Another consideration element is fixed. If be used on the layer annular twine (opposite Yu Luo comes back or axial folds a layer) , can mix in the beginning of the layer end place hand is moved place adhesive plaster, in order to enhance stability and the adherent power to introducing adhesive plaster. If need helix or axial to fold a layer, should use complete adhesive plaster ring to secure its the termination in can without lid, use adhesive plaster prevents to slide. To IV pressure vessel (the wrapping outside carrying carbon fiber composite material has plastic liner) , voluble adhesive plaster will with liner fusion. This eliminated the need that adhesive plaster secures, but plastic liner and thermoplastic carbon fiber belt should have identical fundamental polymer, in order to ensure proper agglutinate. The problem may appear when adding hot plastic liner. For example, if it cannot absorb laser to heat, perhaps used metal core rod, the consideration adjusts the adhesive plaster that laser angle enters with heating adequately. Change character, differ with typical fixed position, make laser distributings to be mixed in entered adhesive plaster between substrate (graph 1) , make laser more front adhesive plaster. This will avoid to stimulate reflection, ensure evener material belt heats, reduce the sources of energy to use up. Laser distributings along with the change of lay up angle or geometrical appearance change   is normally in LATP and LATW process, laser distributings to be mixed in entered material area between substrate. In radius geometry appearance and lay up direction constant circumstance falls, it is constant that this kind distributings. Nevertheless, also a few consider a factor. For example, during the axial on axis of core tubal account folds a layer, compare to the photograph that fold a layer with annulus, the adhesive plaster that introduce will receive identical radiation, and substrate will be received than annulus to fold a more laser umbriferous. Heating in the process, because polymer viscosity is reduced, thermoplastic adhesive plaster can be mixed as temperature lay up speed (heat time) differ and spread out and broaden attenuate. In the system that using closed-loop control (the temperature of region of thermal treatment zone keeps constant) , the adhesive plaster that axial folds a layer compares annulus to the adhesive plaster that folds a layer wider. Or, in having constant to decide power pilot system, axial folds a meeting to be formed below inferior temperature, the width of tape will be accordingly smaller. It is very important to understand and solve this, because the inhomogenous change of adhesive plaster dimension may bring about the clearance that does not need and jackknife, raise interstitial rate thereby. When wrap up pressure vessel, because carry top of ministry circular arc, radius geometry experience produces change. When enter or leaving these dome, robot decelerate, the laser facula on substrate is reduced. These two kinds of action can bring about temperature lift quickly, bring about thereby sectional attenuate, material function is different, cause damage to polymer even. Another issue that needs a consideration is, the fiber layer when the component is formed in twining a process when, the dimension that twines the core on its (so far, core axis adds a layer) can produce change. Accordingly, should adjust the angle that fold a layer in order to avoid clearance. Otherwise, the hand is moved or must use online inspection system to check winding, undertake corrective according to need. Although solve afore-mentioned problems helpful, but impossible 100% eliminate flaw, if clearance, jackknife is mixed,ply changes. But, the development that twines craft should achieve the design of the spare parts to allow a value. Turn machine greatly it is thermoplastic that adherent force and crystallization spend   to heat up management between function, layer obtain in matrix element of key of exert oneself and completely potential crystalline is added between enough layer. The layer stands by core axis, core axis has the effect of radiator. This can arrest a member between diffuse each other, promote the adherent force, inferior crystallization between poorer layer is spent and higher gap is led. To overcome this one challenge, people should consider to lower deposition rate, carry high temperature is spent and adjust laser angle, make longer heat time, in order to ensure the element diffuses. However, this can not assure complete crystallization. Because the element diffuses,this is - form an element afresh after fusing in cooling process intricate - get more quickly than crystallization process much, in crystallization process the element is arranged form orderly crystal structure. The part that if want,makes is very small (be less than 2 millimeter about) , meeting expectation crystallization spends people under larger part, because larger part accepts more solid form processes, the hot loss of core axis is less also. To small part and large part, consider the rate of slower lay up of initiative lay up. Want to achieve complete crystallization to spend, consider the following matter please: 1) , after twining, in thermoplastic matrix Tg (vitrification transition temperature) with Tm (melt temperature) anneal undertakes below the temperature between (hot dip) . According to experience, the intermediate dot between two temperature offerred fast crystallization kinetic. 2) , use heat core axis, spend in order to raise the crystallization of initiative layer. This always is not likely, and the likelihood is more expensive. If use,heat core axis, must consider core axis to may produce heat to expand. 3) , adopt solid knot program - in other words, include to be twined through entering material to take, but laser is completely umbriferous go up in substrate. This basically is to connect the layer after passing to obtain less, but also can be in layer, in order to raise the conglutinate between the layer. Material takes dimension – to design flexibility and productivity   to twine material to take measure is a when twine important parameter. Apparent, obtain constant data to take width and ply to will make the product is had from supplier place but repeatability and uniformity. But, material took dimension to also define design flexibility. For example, the axial that goes up to be in charge of shape core axis folds a layer, adhesive plaster width should enough narrow, in order to accord with core axis curvature. Core axis diameter is bigger, spendable adhesive plaster is wider. Wider tape means faster handling capacity, and narrower tape criterion more facilitating design, because it can get used to curvature change more, more change direction easily. Canister of homebred and advanced Chu Qing enters market   at an early date thermoplastic canister of the V that answer material twines Chu Qing, it is the target of demand of automobile industry development. Progress as the technology, new high temperature, high-powered thermoplastic carbon fiber composite material, had begun to be used at the main structure getting power of civil aircraft, be like airframe, wing. New material can satisfy the mechanical function of Chu Qing canister completely to ask. As canister of V Chu Qing another key is core model. The core technology – that core model makes jar of V hydrogen fuel besides CTD company but outside fold core model, still have a kind of core model that can melt. The core model technology that can melt at present has not appeared in the newspaper. Estimate this kind of technology, the microtherm fuel jar that makes space carrier rocket in the United States - ice hockey (on CryoSphere) , had used. Can melt core model is direction of development of production V canister. Can melt the technology that core model also is not what too high to reach, want an enterprise to admit only allow this direction to be done hard, regular meeting captures. Anyhow, the car is used thermoplastic canister of the V that answer material twines Chu Qing, at present abroad still also handles ongoing hair level. Home makes coal tub enterprise should seize this opportunity, throw development work as soon as possible. Let at an early date homebred thermoplastic answer material V canister, enter an international market.

Newsolar Conference
15-18 December

New York City